Data Visualization: Weaving a Story

The purpose of visualization is insight, not pictures.

                                          - Shneiderman

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Swiss House Price Growth Rate

[1985-2014]

The  animated map depicts the spatial distribution of differences in annual house price growth rate from 1985 to 2014 for the low, middle, and high price category across Switzerland. The house price growth rate is calculated from house price indices (1985=100) across 106 M.S. regions. 

There is a substantial heterogeneity in the dynamics of house prices across regions and tiers. The gap between lower and upper tier growth rates within one region varies substantially and can be as high as 78%. The growth margin is the highest in highly urbanized regions such as around Lake Geneva, Basel, or the Zurich-Zug-Luzern metropolitan area. A few other regions which are popular tourist regions and attract a number of wealthy foreign individuals also experiences an increase in the gap between lower tier and upper tier house prices. The differential margin of growth rates in tourist areas is suggestive of availability of land and other supply side measures influencing house price dynamics. Areas with constrained land have higher house prices compared to non constrained areas.

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Non Notified Slum Clusters in Delhi, India

[2016]

The animated map plots the distribution of illegal slum clusters at the municipal ward level in Delhi, India. The blue dots represent the number of households in a particular slum cluster. The heat colour pattern of the municipal ward represents the total population of the respective ward.

 78% of slums are built on public land owned by municipal bodies (54%), railways (14%), state government, or other public entities. Approximately 64% of slums are surrounded by residential areas (Government of the NCT of Delhi 2010). Census (2001) estimates that 16.3% of population in Delhi is located in urban slums, which is higher than the national average of 14.8%. 66% of all statutory towns in India have slums, 17.4% of total urban households live in slums according to Census of India (2011).

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Indian Urban Renewal Mission - District Wise Coverage

[2005-2012]

The matrix plot in shows the distribution of average night-time light intensity in India over the period 1992-2013. Each grid on the horizontal axis represents a district. The plot in the upper part demonstrates Indian districts that were exposed to the JNNURM - IHSDP urban renewal policy of the Indian government from 2005-2012, which forms the treatment group. Districts that were not exposed to policy forms the control group as demonstrated in the lower part of the plot. There are 241 districts in the treated group and 123 districts in the control group.

 The vertical grid measures the night-time light intensity of the districts in horizontal axis over different years. The average growth rate of all districts that were assigned the IHSDP policy grew at 8% over the time 1992-2012, double than that of the districts in the control group.

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EQx Pillar Country Scores & Global Rankings [2021]:

POLITICAL POWER

The Political Power Pillars addresses the capture of 3 kinds of rules:

the rules of the state via ‘State Capture’,

the rules of business regulation via ‘Regulatory Capture’.

the rules for labour markets and civil service jobs via ‘Human Capture’.

The terminology is borrowed from Stigler’s ‘capture theory’ (1971).

  • ‘State Capture’ addresses how distributional coalitions capture the state and its government branches, for example, through Political corruption.

  • ‘Regulatory Capture’ suggests the extent to which rules and regulations, both in terms of process and output, have been captured by interest groups.

  • ‘Human Capture’ accounts for the power of labour and civil service coalitions, the power of those who can implement discriminatory practices, and the power of elite business models to influence wages and working conditions.

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EQx Pillar Country Scores & Global Rankings [2021]:

ECONOMIC POWER

The Economic Power Pillars measures elite ‘Coalition Dominance’

and ‘Firm Dominance’ within the economy,

and their opposite: the extent of ‘Creative Destruction’.

  • ‘Coalition Dominance’ examines the economic power of leading industries by measuring the degree of business diversity and the distribution of power in an economy through Indicators such as the Economic Complexity Index.

  • ‘Firm Dominance’ measures the power of single businesses within the economy, using Indicators such as Top 3 firms revenues as % of GDP.

  • We use Schumpeter’s (1942) concept of ‘Creative Destruction’—the replacement of outdated business practices with innovative new structures—for the third Economic Power Pillar, which includes measures for Entrepreneurship and VC finance. The aim is to measure the pressure for renewal and disruption that exist within an economy and fuel Value Creation.

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EQx Pillar Country Scores & Global Rankings [2021]:

POLITICAL VALUE

The Political Value Pillars consists of:

‘Giving Income’ ,

‘Taking Income’ ,

and  ‘Unearned Income’,

which reflect policy decisions in the political sphere that relate to redistribution in its broadest sense: “from one subset of society to benefit a different subset”. An important point here is that we only consider the merits of such redistribution in terms of Value and try to assess whether it has been extracted or created for each surveyed Indicator.

  • ‘Giving Income’ measures how the government manages and uses public finances, in terms of the provision of public goods such as education or the amount of subsidies distributed in an economy.

  • ‘Taking Income’ addresses how the state collects such income, as in Tax revenue as % of GDP or whether it allows the existence of business models that take the ultimate Value—life—as in Death rates from substance use disorders per 100,000 people.

  • The ‘Unearned Income’ Pillar focuses on the exploitation of natural resources, such as Dutch disease propensity, or of the future at the expense of the present, like Government debt as % of GDP.​


​Thus, the Political Value Pillars offer a picture of the degree to which production has been channelled into or shifted away from innovative and wealth-creating sectors of the economy (Porter, 1990).

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EQx Pillar Country Scores & Global Rankings [2021]:

ECONOMIC VALUE

The Economic Value Pillars directly measure the extent of Value Creation and Value Extraction from the economy’s three markets:

the products and services markets,

the capital markets,

and the labour markets.

  • ‘Producer Value’ estimates the value created or the rents extracted by producers and suppliers in the market for goods and services.

  • ‘Capital Value’ measures the value created or the rents extracted both directly and indirectly through participation in the financial market.

  • ‘Labour Value’ which includes Indicators such as Unemployment rate and the Gender wage gap allows to assess the value created or the rents extracted in the labour markets, for example, from interventions in both supply and demand.

 

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